Nepal Travel Information

Nepal Covid-19 Update

Dear Friends,
Namaste !
I hope that all of you are safe and having the best health with you and your family. Here today I would like to inform you that Nepal ends the lock down and resume all the domestic/international flights, trekking/climbing/mountaineering activities, hotel/restaurant and all public vehicle after 17 August. Though we have by following health and safety protocols as compulsory of wearing masks and physical distancing. The Department of Tourism is all set to issue climbing permits for the autumn season after the government decided to resume domestic and international flights. “Climbing activities in the autumn season and onwards will go on,” DoT’s Spokesperson Meera Acharya, said. According to her, the department has already started preparing necessary guidelines for climbers and trekkers who plan to visit Nepal after August 17. “DoT will also issue Standard Operating Procedure (SoP) for agencies to run autumn climbing and trekking activities in the autumn season,” she said. So now the booking is open for trek/climb/expedition/tours for coming autumn and the year 2021. Your travel to Nepal really help and support to the Nepalese burden current economy. You can enjoy the Nature travelling. Thank you for taking your time reading this message. I am looking forward to welcoming you in Nepal. Wishing you all the best and warm greetings from Nepal Himalaya.
Your friend,
Tej Panta


Nepal is a small landlocked country sharing borders with India to the east, west and south and Tibet to the north and northwest, it has eight of the Highest Mountains in the world including mt. Everest which at 8848m is the tallest of them all. The Larger part of the country lies on the southern slope of the Himalayas and extends down from the highest peaks through the hills region to the plains.


Foreign visitors for entering to Nepal can be obtained visa from the Nepalese Embassies, Consulate offices in your countries, at the point of entry from the Immigration Office at the Tribhuvan International Airport for the tourist arriving by air and tourist arriving by road can obtain visa at the immigration offices at the boarder with India and China.  As per the VISA fee structure:

  • # US $ 25.00 or equivalent foreign currency for 15 Days Tourist Visa with Multiple Entry.
  • # US $ 50.00 or equivalent foreign currency for 30 Days Tourist Visa with Multiple Entry.
  • # US $ 125.00 or equivalent foreign currency for 90 days Tourist Visa with Multiple Entry.
  • Visa Extension Fee 

  • Tourist visa extension is done for minimum 15 days with USD 45 and USD 3 per day for additional days.
  • In the case of delay less than 150 days additional USD 5 per day as late fine.
  • Please follow these simple procedures for Tourist Visa on Arrival at the airport (TIA)  if you have not acquired Visa prior to boarding the plane.

    1st  Step

    • Fill in ' Arrival Card '
    • Fill in Online ‘Tourist Visa ‘form ( you can fill it up  prior to your arrival  visiting our official website  Department of Immigration / fill it up using Kiosk machines upon your arrival at the airport).  If you fill it from the website, you will get submission Receipt with barcode, please print it out and bring it along for acquiring visa. It works for fifteen days and becomes invalid then after.  If so, you will have to fill it up again.
  • 2nd  Step  
    • Make payment  at the bank according to your visa requirement ( 15/30/90 Days)
    • Get the receipt
  • While you can use different modes of payments (at visa fees collection counter), we advise you to carry some cash to be on the safe side.

Trekking Permit:

Any foreigners interested to do trek in any part of Nepal should have obtained a Trekking permit from the Department of Immigration, Government of Nepal and other concerned authorities through any authorized Trekking companies of Nepal.

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Trekking Region

Permit Fee


Dolpa District-

I) Upper Dolpo

  1. Dolpo Buddha Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 4 to 6)
  2. Shey Phoksundo Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 7)
  3. Charka Tangsong Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 6)

II)Lower Dolpo

  1. Thulibheri municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 11)
  2. Tripurasundari municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 11)
  3. Dolpo Buddha Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 3)
  4. Shey Phoksundo Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 8 and 9)
  5. Jagdulla Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 6)
  6. Mudkechula Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 9)
  7. Kaike Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 7)

USD500 per person  (for the first 10 days)

USD 50 per person /Day  ( beyond 10 days)



USD 20 per person/ week 

USD 5 per person /day  ( beyond 1 week)


Mustang District
I) Upper Mustang

  1. Lomanthang Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 5)
  2. Lo-Ghekar Damodarkunda Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 5)
  3. Baragung Muktichetra Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 3 and Satang Village of ward no.5)

USD500 per person  (for the first 10 days)

USd 50 per person /Day  ( beyond 10 days)


Gorkha District- Manaslu Area

Chumnubri Rural Municipality (All areas of ward nos. 1,2,3 and 4)

September – November

USD 100 per person / week

USD 15 per person / day (beyond 1 week)

December – August

USD 75 per person / week

USD 10 per person / day (beyond 1 week)


Taplejung District

  1. Phantanglung Rural Municipality (All areas of ward nos. 6 and 7)
  2. Mikwakhola Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 5)
  3. Sirijunga Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 8)

USD 20 per person/ week  (for the first 4 weeks)

USD 25 per person /week  ( beyond 4 weeks)



  1. Gaurishankhar Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 9)
  2. Bighu Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1)
USD 20 per person/ week 


Humla District

  1. Simikot Rural Municipality (All areas of ward nos. 1,6 and 7)
  2. Namkha Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 6)
  3. Changkheli Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 3 to 5)

USD 50 per person / week

USD 10 per person / day (beyond 1 week)


Rasuwa District

Gosaikunda Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 and some area of ward no. 2)

USD 20 per person /week


Sankhuwasabha District

  1. Bhotkhola Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 5)
  2. Makalu Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 4)

USD 20 per person/ week  (for the first 4 weeks)

USD 25 per person /week  ( beyond 4 weeks)


Solukhumbu District

Khumbu Pasang Lahmu Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 5)

USD 20 per person/ week  (for the first 4 weeks)

USD 25 per person /week  ( beyond 4 weeks)


Manang District

  1. Narpa Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 5)
  2. Nasho Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 6 and 7)

September – November

USD 100 per person / week

USD 15 per person / day (beyond 1 week)

December – August

USD 75 per person / week

USD 15 per person / day (beyond 1 week)


Mugu District

Mugumakarmarong Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 9)

USD 100 per person / week

USD 15 per person / day (beyond 1 week)


Baijang District
Saipal Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1 to 5)

USD 90 per person / week for the first week

USD 15 per person / day (beyond 1 week)


Darachula District

Vyas Rural Municipality (All areas of ward no. 1)

USD 90 per person / week

USD 15 per person / day (beyond 1 week)

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a. To get a group trekking permit an application form with other relevant document should be submitted through any registered trekking agency of Nepal

b. Trekking fee can be paid in Nepalese currency. Not withstanding anything written above the Indian Citizen can pay in Nepalese currency equivalent to US Dollars

Latest Updated National Parks and Wildlife Conservation fees Structure.


Name of Protected Areas

Entry Fee


Manaslu Conservation Area

Rs. 3,000.00


Annapurna Conservation Area

Rs. 3,000.00


Kanchenjunga Conservation Area

Rs. 3,000.00


Langtang National Park

Rs. 3,000.00


Sagarmatha National Park

Rs. 3,000.00


Rara National Park

Rs. 3,000.00


Shey-Phoskundo National Park



Makalu Barun National Park

Rs. 3,000.00


Khaptad National Park

Rs. 3,000.00


Koshi Tappu Wild Reserve

Rs. 500.00


Shivapuri National Park




Nepal is considered one of the best adventure destinations in the world. Nepal is geographically packs on extremely varied landscape into a small area. The immense contract in altitude and climate found here support a spectacular mix of lifestyles, vegetation and wildlife. Nepal is probably the only country in the world where you can climb the highest mountain of the world, trek to scenic countryside with icy pinnacles always in the background as well as enjoy jungle safari in forests considered to be the densest in the entire South Asian region.


Nepal is popular as one of the best destinations in the world to explore and experience the natural beauty and cultural riches through trekking. One can walk along the beaten trails or virgin tracks. Either way, you are in for an experience of lifetimes along with forests of rhododendron, isolated helmets and small mountains villages, birds, animals, temples. Monasteries and breathtaking landscapes, you will also encounter friendly people of different cultures offering an experience of traditional rural life. The trails follow ancient foot trails which meander through scenic river-ranks, intricately terraced fields and forested ridged connecting picturesque hamlets and mountain villages. Trekking in Nepal is an all season activity. They are  grades of Trekking in Nepal:

  • # Easy Trekking (Elevation goes up 2500m)
  • # Modorate Trekking (Evevation goes from 2500m up to 4000m)
  • # Strenuous Trekking (Elevation from 4000m up to 5500m)
  • # Very Strenuous Trekking (Elevation above 5500m up to 6000m)
  • # Challanging Trekking  Elevation above 6100m

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Nepal Himalaya region is the greatest mountains in the world with eights highest peaks that rise above 8,000m including Mt. Everest the highest peak in the world. Since 1949, the Nepal Himalayas have become a great theatre of mountaineering activities and the drama of success and failures have provided impetus to thousands of climbers to meet the ultimate challenges. To scale any of the mountain peaks in Nepal, expedition permits are needed which can be obtained from the Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation, Mountaineering Section. However, climbing permit for trekking peaks can be obtained from Nepal Mountaineering Association.


Rafting is one of the best ways to explore the typical cross section of natural as well as cultural heritage of the country. There are numerous rivers in Nepal which offer excellent rafting experience. You can glide on calm jade waters with magnificent scenery all about or rush through roaring white rapids in the care of expert river-men employed by government authorized agencies. The Government of Nepal has opened sections of 10 rivers for commercial rafting. Adventures are provided with world class services by rafting agents. Agencies here provide life jackets, camping gears and standard rafting paraphernalia needed by word-class rafters. An extremely popular sport in Europe, Canyoning is now available in Nepal.


While the high Himalaya makes up Nepal's northern region, southern lowland known as Terai is covered with dense tropical jungles teeming with diverse wildlife and exotic birds. Here you will find some of the most exciting and popular safari destinations in the world. A visit to these parks involve game-staking by a variety of means i.e. foot, dugout canoe, jeep, elephant back etc.


Nepal offers astonishing cultural and religious sightseeing attractions found nowhere else. The three main historic cities of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur are known for numerous historical monuments, old palaces and palace square. Shrines and temples, ageless traditions and legends make Nepal a veritable living museum.

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For all those cliff hangers out there, Kathmandu offers a roster of stone walls that make for an experience of a lifetime. Now of late, rock climbing has become a popular sport in Kathmandu which offers some really terrific places for rock climbing. Narajun, Balaju, Shivapuri and Budhanikantha are some og the places where you can try this sport. Beside this, there are artificial wall which are commercial rock climbing in Kathmandu.


The best way to explore Nepal is on mountain bike. Nepal's diverse terrain is a mountain biker's dream adventure come true. Mountain biking offers an environmentally sound way of exploring the magnificent country of its landscape and living heritages. There are plenty of dirt road and trails in Nepal to meet every mountain biker's wildest fantasy. Mountain biking is specially recommended if you wish to explore urban centers of Nepal. You could even do the entire length of Nepal across the plains. Mountain bikes are available for rent for the day or longer in many of bicycle rental outlets in and around the city.


Nepal is a paradise for bird lovers with over 848 species (almost 8% of the world total) of birds. There are almost 500 species found in the Kathmandu valley alone. The most popular bird watching spot in Kathmandu are Pulchoki, Godawari, Nagarjun, Bagamati River, Taudaha and so on.


Mountain flight in Nepal offers the closest possible aerial views of Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, Lhotse, Makalu, the Tibetan Plateau and many more mountains of Nepal. Mountain flights appeal to all category of travelers and have become a popular tourist attraction of Nepal. For those, who have restricted time or other considerations for going to Trekking in Nepal, mountain flight offer a panoramic views of the Himalayas.

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The ultimate thrill of a bungee jumping can now be experienced in Nepal at one of the best sites that this sport can boast of anywhere in the world. Nepal's first bungee Jumping site is situated 160m over the Bhote Koshi River inviting you to experience the ultimate adrenaline rush in the surrounding of this amazing place.


Cable car is recent phenomenon in Nepal that has become extremely popular with the local and tourists alike. The 10 minute cable car ride takes the visitor to the temple of Gddess Manakamana who is believed to have the power to fulfill wishes. The temple of Manakamana is 125km to the west of Kathmandu.


Paragliding in Nepal can be a truly wonderful and fulfilling experience for the adventure seeking. A trip will take you over some of the best scenery on earth as you share airspace with Himalayan griffin Vultures, Eagles, Kites and float over villages, monasteries, temples, lakes and jungles with a fantastic view of the majestic Himalayan. Paragliding is a weather dependent sport and the flying season in Nepal commences from November through February the month being November and December.


Village tours allow visitors to experience a stay in a typical Nepali village. You will get to stay in home of one f the villagers and during your stay. You will get delicious local food and drink and comfortable accommodation provided by your host family. You will also get a chance to interact with the villagers and get to know their culture, tradition and way of life first hand. Besides, you will be contributing directly to the welfare of the village. Village tours can be experienced at Langtang, Chitwan, Lumbini, Solukhumbu, Illam, Tansen, Sirubari, Ghalegaun, Gorkha and among others.


Special interest tours are conducted in Nepal throughout the year to match all tastes. Lepidopterology 14 families' butterflies are found in Nepal. These exotic species are especially visible in summer and the monsoon seasons. Similarly, fossils hunting, archaeological, Zoological, Geological, mythological, meteorological, historical tours fame hunting and other special interest take place through out all seasons.

Key facts About Nepal

  • Language: official language Nepali (spoken by 49%),about 100 regional and indigenous language
  • Religion: Maily Hindu (81%) Buddhist(11%), Muslim minority (4%) and Others (4%)
  • Climate: The Climates ranges from subtropical in the south and temperate in the hills to arctic at the higher altitudes.The monsoons begin in June and continue up to September.
  • Economy: GDP: &35.81 billiion & GDP real growth rate : 4.6%, Agriculture: 32.8%, Industry: 14.4% & Services: 52.8%
  • Currency: Nepalese Rupee

Quick Access Nepal info


Nepal is a landlocked country lies between 800 4' and 800 12' east longitude and 260 22' and 300 4' north latitude. The total area comprises of 147,181 sq. km, its border touches Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in the north and India in the east, south and west. The country is almost like rectangular with average 885 km east-west length and average width of 193 km north-south. The country can be tentatively divided into three geographical regions running east to west. They are:


This region covers the mountain range whose altitude is 3,000 meters to 8,848 meters above the sea level. With spare human habitation, most of the areas have a wild landscape, undisturbed tranquility of the nature rules over the land. Along with Mt. Everest, the region includes eight of the 14 peaks of the world which exceed the altitude of 8,000 meters and many more mountains. The Himalayan region also divided into 3 regions:

  • # Greater Himalaya
  • # Boarder Himalaya / Trans Himalaya
  • # Inner Himalaya / High Mountain Valley / Bhot


Mountain region covers the areas whose altitude is 600 meters to 3,000 meters above the sea-level and accounts for nearly 64 percent of total land area of the country. Along with the Mahabharat and Churia Mountain ranges, this region has many longitudinal fertile valleys of the principal rivers. Kathmandu valley is also situated in this very region. Likewise, the Himalayan regions are divided into 3 regions, Mountain region also divided into 3 regions:-

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  • # The Midland Range (Valley/Tars/Beshi)
  • #Mahabharat RangeChuria Range


This region form a low flat land belt and includes the most fertile land and dense forest areas of the Country. It accounts 17 percent of the total land of the country. It has the width of 26 to 32 kilometers and its altitude does not exceed 305 meters above the sea level. This region is also divided into 3 regions:

  • # Southern Terai Region
  • # Bhabar Pradesh Region
  • # Inner Terai Region


Nepal is a country of ancient civilization which can be traced thousand of years before the birth of Christ (B.C). However, scientifically reliable documents that are available now date back only to the 5th Century AD when the Lichhavis ruled over the country. We have to be content with various Legends about the earlier periods until more authentic documents are found. Legends say that the very first dynasty to rule the Kathmandu valley was Gopala dynasty. Then ruled by Kiratas. After Kiratas, then came rulers of Lichhavis dynasty who improved the economy and making great contributions for the development f the art of building, temples, images and places. After Lichhavis period, another important era of Nepalese history is the Malla dynasty ruled around 13th century AD. Innumerable temples, palaces, idols and carving that are preserved in the valley, speak of the excellence in art and architecture during that period. In this sense Nepal has a long and a glorious history. By 1767 AD, the Great King Prithivi Narayan Shah of Shah Dynasty conquered various warring principalities and laid the foundation of modern Nepal. After Prithivi Narayan Shah, the campaign of the unification was given continuity by his younger son Bahadur Shah and was launched once again by the First Prime Minister of Nepal Bhimsen Thapa. However the expansion came to a halt when Nepal came into conflict with British India Company and signed the treaty of Sugauli which lost the most important territories of Nepal. Another crucial chapter of the history began the fall of Rana Regime in February 1951, after a popular revolution Nepal saw the dawn of democracy. A democratic revolt of 1990 has reinstated the Multi-party democratic system since April 1990. A people movement of 2005 had removed the Shah Dynasty of constitutional monarchy. Nepal has been declared as Federal Democratic Republic by the First Constitutional Assembly on 28th May 2008.


Nepal is 5 hrs 45 minutes ahead of GMT and 15 minutes ahead of Indian Standard time and other time differences are presented separately.


Electricity is only found in major towns with 220 volts/ 50 cycles.


In Nepal Nepalese Rupee is subdivided into 100 paisa. The denominations of currency notes are available in 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 500, and 1000. Similarly, coins are available in 1, 2 and 5 rupees, which are in circulation.

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Foreign visitors other than the Indian nationals are required to pay in foreign currency. However, other payment must be paid in Nepalese currency. Exchange counter are available at the airport and local banks. There are also foreign exchange counters available at the different places of the cities. Tourists are advised to obtain and retained the foreign exchange encashment receipts so as to reconvert the unused Nepali currency into foreign currency. Visitors are required to fill the currency declaration form at the port of entry. Major national daily newspapers publish foreign exchange rates everyday.


Government and most of the offices work six day a week. Saturday is the official weekly holidays in Nepal. Most of the shops are remains open from Sunday through to Friday, while Museum throughout the valley remains closed on Tuesday and other Government holidays. Other holidays are listed in the Nepalese calendar.


Government offices open from 10 A.M. to 17:00 P.M. during summer and till 16:00 P.M. in winter. On Friday, these offices are open till 15:00 P.M.


Banks are open between 09:00 A.M. to 5:00 PM, Monday to Friday.

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The Major Festivals of Nepal

Dashain and Tihar

The biggest and most popular festivals based on religion are: Dashain and Tihar in Nepal. Dashain, a celebration of Goddess Durga’s victory over evil Mahisashur, has symbolic meaning deeply rooted in Nepalese society. Tihar, a celebration of lights and color dedicated to Goddess Laxmi, too unfolds social joy throughout the nation.

Buddha Jayanti

Buddha Jayanti is celebrated to mark the birthday of the Lord Buddha which dates back in about 543 BC. It falls on the full moon night of either May or June. The peace lover and Buddhist communities like to make their pilgrimage at Buddha’s birth place Lumbini of Nepal in this auspicious day.

Gai Jatra
Gai Jatra is one of the most popular festivals generally celebrated in between August-September. Even though Gai Jatra has presence throughout the country, it has most strongholds in the Newari community of Kathmandu valley. This festival has its roots in the belief that the god of death, Yamaraj, must be feared and hence worshiped.

Janai Purnima

Janai Purnima keeps the sacred meaning in Hindu community of Nepal. On this same day Rakshya Bandhan is also celebrated where every Hindu ties a sacred thread. Janai Purnima maintains the holy significance where as Rakshya Bandhan makes stronger the love and respect in between and among sisters and brothers.


Teej is a celebration of fasting in which women pray for marital bliss, well being of their spouse and children and purification of their own body and soul. It takes place on August and September. In the present context, the festival has connotation with rights of women.

Shree Krishna Janmastami

Shree Krishna Janmastami marks the celebration of the birth of Lord Sri Krishna. Lord Krishnais regarded as the 8th avatar or ‘incarnation’ of Lord Vishnu. It falls on August and September. This festival is hugely celebrated throughout the country.

Fagun Purnima

Fagun Purnima, allegedly named after the mythical demoness Holika, is a day when the feast of colors is celebrated. The ancient Holi festival falls on late February or on early March. It has growing popularity among Nepalese even today and it is amazingly celebrated throughout the nation.

Maghe Sankranti

Maghe Sankranti is the harbinger of the holy month usually in the mid of January. The festival hopes to bring end of cold season and expect to coming of warmer weather and better days of health and fortune.


Indrajatra falls in August and September. Both Hindus and Buddhists unite to celebrate the festival with great enthusiasm. Indrajatra has historic significance in Nepal as well.


Mahashivaratri is the celebration dedicated to the Lord Shiva which falls in February and March. It is the celebration of birthday of supreme god of Hindu mythological figure. Thousands and thousands of visitors make their pilgrimage visit in Kathmandu on this day.Besides these festivals, Nepal celebrates more and more other regional, communal and seasonal festivals. 

Climate in Nepal:

Nepal's climate is best described as Sub-Tropical Monsoon general predictable and pleasant. The monsoon is approximately from the end of June to the middle of September. 80 percent of rainfall is by this durations and remaining of the year is dry. Spring and autumn are the best seasons for the trekking, peak climbing, expedition and others. It has been classified into between four and six seasons, which are as follows:

  • # Winter Season (December to February)
  • # Autumn Season (September to November)
  • # Summer Season (June to August)
  • # Spring Season (March to May)

Nepal has diverse climate because of the topography which ranges from sea-level 75m to 8,848m the Highest Peak of the World Mt. Everest. The southern belts of Nepal Terai remain hot most of the year and temperature decreases gradually towards North as the altitude increases. Based on our experience, we have prepared a chart which shows the approximate temperatures at different altitudes in different months.

Altitude 1500m 2000m 2500m 3000m 3500m 4000m 4500m 5000m
Month Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max
Jan 4 20 2 18 -1 16 -2 14 -3 13 -4 12 -5 10 -12 6
Feb 7 22 4 20 2 18 1 17 -2 14 -7 12 -6 10 -12 8
Mar 9 24 5 23 2 20 1 20 -1 16 -5 14 -6 12 -8 10
Apr 10 32 8 27 5 24 1 22 0 18 -2 16 -4 14 -6 12
May 11 33 9 28 6 25 1 20 0 18 1 17 -2 16 -4 14
June 11 33 9 28 6 25 1 20 0 18 1 17 -2 16 -4 14
July 10 33 9 28 6 25 1 20 0 17 -2 16 -4 14 -6 12
Aug 10 31 10 28 6 25 1 20 0 18 -2 16 -4 14 -6 12
Sep 10 30 10 28 6 25 1 20 0 18 -2 16 -4 14 -5 13
Oct 8 39 7 26 5 24 0 19 -2 17 -4 14 -5 13 -8 12
Nov 7 22 6 24 4 22 1 18 -3 14 -5 12 -5 11 -10 10
Dec 5 21 4 20 2 18 -2 16 -4 14 -6 10 -6 10 -12 6


International certificate of vaccination regarding current inoculation against cholera, typhoid and yellow fever is not required.

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In Kathmandu, boiled and filtered water as well as mineral water is available in most of the hotels and restaurants. Elsewhere, it is advisable to use water sterilization tablets or stick to tea and soft drinks.


Foreign visitors other than the Indian nationals are required to pay their hotel bills and air tickets in foreign currency.


Nepal's population is about 25 millions. According to the census taken by the Central Bureau of Statistics state that there are 61 (presently 59) ethnic groups of people speak different languages. However most of the ethnic groups can be broadly divided into two groups: Indo-Aryans/Indo-Nepalese and Tibeto Mongolians/Tibeto Nepalese. Historically the people of the former group entered the territory of Nepal during the period of Muslim's conquest in the Indian sub-continental and the latter came to Nepal across the Himalayas pass from the north and they inhabited the Himalayan valley and slopes. The latter group is the aboriginals of the country. In addition, there are many nomadic tribes in the hills and terai who have now submitted to the agrarian system.


Brahmans are the members of the highest social caste. There are two different categories of Brahmans namely "Kumai Brahmans" and "Purbiya Brahmans". They are only differs in their derived homeland. The "Kumai Brahmans" are supposed to have come from Mountainous regions of Kumaon in the northern India west of Nepal. The "Purbiya Brahmans" came from the eastern part of Nepal and are found scattered across the country. The Brahmans are the priestly caste. The Brahmans priests are exclusively in all Hindu temples. Nepali is official language and was originally spoken by Brahman. They are better educated than other ethnic groups. They have occupied important government and educational posts in Nepal.


In the caste hierarchy of Nepal, the Chhetris and Thakuris come in the second position after Brahmans. They are the rulers, leaders and warriors. The Brahmans are their Teacher and family priests. They are orthodox Hindu. Thakuris are originally come from the northern part o Nepal in the 12 to 13 century. In Nepal, Chhetris and Thakuris are among the most influential and well to do social class. They are mostly in the government services in the high ranked positions in the army and police. Some of them are remained farmers and are relatively poor and live like other ethnic group. Those living in the higher hills in the far western region lead hard lives because of lack of rain and farming is practiced in the river valleys and on the hill flanks.


In the middle hills and valley along the southern slope of the Annapurna Himalaya in the mid-western, Gurung live together with other ethnic group like Magars, Brahmans and Chhetis. They are sturdy and hardworking. They are mongoloid physiologically. They extend their living territories from Gorkha in the east through Lamjung, Manang and Kaski to Syangja district. According to the Legend, the Gurung were wandering tribe that traversed west across Tibet prior to their entry into Mustang. They are pre-dates the introduction of Buddhism (7th Century). Their religious traditions are basically animistic. They celebrate Lhosar (New Year) at the end of December is according to the ancient calendar of western Tibet. A caste hierarchy divides that Gurung Community as "Char Jat and sora Jat" means group of four and sixteen class. Traditionally they prefer cross cousins marriage. They also have a tradition of "Rodi", a club of boys and girls of similar age group where dancing and singing are preformed. They also perform other tradition dances Sorathi, Ghado, Ghatu and others on marriage and occasions. Most of Gurung are engaged in British and Indian Gurkha regiments.


Magar live in the western and central hills of Nepal. They had their own countrys until the 18th century and were closely associated with the Hindu Indo-Aryans in the west. Much of their cultural practices have been influenced by Chhetris. Today it is difficult to make any difference in the housing, dressing and farming practices of the two. The Magar have been sought after by the British and Indian armies and a great number serve in the Gurkha regiments. They speak a dialogue derived from Tibeto-Burman group of languages. Their religion is Buddhism. However they are also Hindu Magar. The Magar Community celebrates the festival dedicated to the goddess Kalingreatpomp (Hindu festival) where they sacrifice a lot goat during this occasion. Magar vaillage are typical with round and oval houses.


Sherpa is a combinations of Tibetan words Shar (East) and Pa (People) "people of the east". They are migrated from eastern Tibet and now living in the eastern part of Nepal. Sherpa are the most famous among the Himalayan peoples because of their impeccable mountaineering skill which has made them as indispensable part of mountain expeditions as Leaders, Guides and porters. As an individual or in groups, they have set many records in the mountaineering world. Most of the sherpa live in Khumbu region of eastern Nepal in the vicinity of Mt. Everest along with Arun valley, Dudh Koshi river and its tributary areas. Traditionally in Sherpa community fraternal polyandry is found i.e. two brothers may marry one common wife. However, if there are three brothers, the middle one has to serve the Monastery as a Monk. For the four brothers, the group of two may marry two common wives. But this system is abolished from sherpa society these days. Sherpa observe many festivals during the year. The important festivals are Lhosar and Dumje festival in Sherpa community.


Tharuare one of the oldest and original indigenous ethnic groups to inhabit the Terai. They are spread across the length of Nepal's plain and extend westward into the Kumaon foothill. The Tharu language has been greatly influenced by various Indo-Aryan such as Maithili in the eastern, Bhojpuri in the central and Awadhi in the western Terai. Tharus have their own unique religion and practice animism. Their culture is especially suited for the hot plains and they are actually immune to malaria. They have Mongoloid features with dark-brown, the Rana Tharu of the western Terai claim them as Rajput ancestry and speak their own language. There is much migration going on in the country now and the cultural definition of the people by area is difficult. Urban population is increasing by 7% each year and most cultures have intermingled. Tharu Marriages are particulars within the same tribes. Traditionally Tharu religion is to worship the spirits particularly of the forest.

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Newar are the original inhabitant and indigenous ethnic group of Kathmandu Valley. They are natives of Kathmandu with greater concentration in the kathmandu valley, Banepa, Dhulikhel, Bhojpur, Bandipur, Tansen and other parts of Nepal. Newars are mainly traders. Despite the small percentage numerically, they contribute significantly and the creators of the splendid civilization of its three cities - Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur in the history, art, architecture,and business activities in the country. The skillfully - built temples and palaces, delicately-engraved stone and metal images, carved wooden columns and pillars, and the history laden shrines and chaityas of these three historical cities stand testimony to the Newar's artistic achievements. Newar speak their own language "Newari" also known as Nepal Bhasa which belongs to Tibeto-Burman family language.


Religious structure of Nepal has a unique place in the world. All the sects co-exist with universal brotherhood. Hindu and Buddhist are visiting the same places of pilgrimages. This serves as fine examples of fellow feeling. Tolerance in religious is one of the most remarkable features of Nepal culture. Nepal never witnessed religious riots. Overwhelming majority of the population are Hindu and Buddhist, they are many religious that are followed by different ethnic groups. Most of these sects are in the form of animism. They believe in host of spirits or supernatural beings as they worshipped by their generations.


Thousands of gods and goddesses make up the Hindu pantheon. Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are the three major Hindu gods who have their own characteristics and incarnations. Each god has his own steed which is often seen kneeling faithfully outside that god and goddess temples. Symbolic objects are carries by the multiple hands of each deity which empowers them to perform great feats. The followers of Hinduism are roughly divided into three groups i.e. Nepali speaking Hindu of hilly region, the Maithili, Bhojpuri and Awadhi speaking groups of the Terai and the Newars of Kathmandu valley. They differ in customary practices; however they have indisputable arrangement as regard to broader philosophical aspects of the religion.


Sakyamuni Buddha is the founder of Buddhism who lived and taught in this part of the world during the sixth century BC. The great stupas of Swayambhunath and Boudhanath are among the oldest and most beautiful worship sites in the Kathmandu Valley. The spinning of prayer wheels, prostrating pilgrims, collective chants and burning butter lamps are some Buddhist practices often encountered by tourist. a slip of paper bearing a mantra is kept inside the wheels so that prayers are sent to the gods when the wheel is spun. Scenes from the Buddha's life and Buddhist realms are depicted on thangka scroll paintings which are used during meditation and prayer ceremonies. Many Buddhist followers are seen performing these practices in Swayambhunath , Boudhanath, and at other Buddhist sites around the Valley.

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Passengers arriving at Tribhuwan International airport (TIA) without any dutiable goods can pass through the Green Channel for quick clearance without a baggage check. If you are carrying dutiable goods and articles, you have to be declared at the Red Channel. It is illegal to export goods over 100 years old. The Department of Archeology has to certify for export any metal statues, sacred paintings and similar objects before being taken out of the country. All bags must be declared and cleared through customs inspection at the airport of entry. Visitors are allowed to import the following articles for their personal use. Tourist can bring dutiable goods such as tobacco and liquors free of duty and other taxes subject to the following limits

  • # Cigarettes 200 sticks
  • # Cigars 50 sticks
  • # Liquor, one bottle not exceeding 1.15 liter
  • # Beer 12 cans
  • # Binoculars
  • # One movie camera with 12 rolls of film or one video camera
  • # One ordinary camera with 15 rolls of film
  • # One tape recorder with 15 tape reels or cassettes
  • # One perambulator
  • # One tricycle
  • # One sleeping bag and one sock.


An Airport tax of Rs. 770 + 565 tourism service charge per passenger is levied on departure to SAARC (South Asian) Countries and Rs. 1100 + 565 tourism service charge to other international destinations. Those flying within Nepal are required to pay Rs. 170 as the airport tax.



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